SMPS

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a DC or AC source to DC loads, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. Unlike a linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. 

Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight.Like a linear power supply, the switched mode power supply too converts the available unregulated ac or dc input voltage to a regulated dc output voltage. However in case of SMPS with input supply drawn from the ac mains, the input voltage is first rectified and filtered using a capacitor at the rectifier output. SMPS stands for Switch-Mode-Power-Supply. They are used in many places in a computer. In a modern computer, there is a SMPS that takes rectified AC input from the wall, performs power factor correction and then converts the output into one or more lower voltage DC outputs.

This unregulated dc voltage across the capacitor is finally given to linear regulator which converters it into regulated DC voltage as shown in the following figure. In switched mode power supply (SMPS) input voltage from AC mains is directly rectified and filtered using a capacitor. A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) is an electronic circuit that converts power using switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, and storage components such as inductors or capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non-conduction state.

Switching power supplies have high efficiency and are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment, including computers and other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply.A switched-mode power supply is also known as a switch-mode power supply or switching-mode power supply.